|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||7,639,953|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||5,858,536|
An inquiry into the relationships between BOD5, COD, and TOC in Tigris River, Maysan Province, Iraq
|Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences|
|دوره 20، شماره 1، فروردین 2022، صفحه 37-43 اصل مقاله (964.14 K)|
|نوع مقاله: Research Paper|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22124/cjes.2022.5390|
|Haleem K. Alewi* 1؛ Emad A Abood2؛ Gaith Ali3|
|1Southern Technical University, Technical Institute of Shatra, Thi -Qar, Iraq|
|2University of Baghdad. Baghdad, Iraq|
|3Ministry of Water Resources, Thi-Qar, Iraq|
|Despite its universally wide use in water quality indices and evaluating the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants, chemical oxygen demand (COD) or biological oxygen demand (BOD5) analyses have disadvantages such as being imprecise, time-consuming, insensitive, as well as the production of hazardous wastes. Total organic carbon (TOC) will introduce as an alternative analysis, the relationship between BOD5, COD, and TOC has been investigated in this study. A total number of 216 samples were taken from three stations (kumait, Al Amara, and Al Majar Al Kabeer) in Tigris River, Maysan Province, Iraq. The sampling was on a monthly basis during a two-year period. The tests were performed according to ASTM D7573 - 18ae1, ASTM D6238-98, and ASTM D125-06 for TOC, BOD5, and COD respectively at the Pollution Research Centre of the Al-Shatra Institute, the data were statistically analyzed using the SPSS program to predict a relationship between the COD or BOD5 and TOC. The analysis showed a good relationship concerning to a value of correlation coefficient, i.e., r = 0.93 or r = 0.94 between TOC and BOD5 or COD respectively, as well as the coefficient of determination, i.e., R2 = 0.91 or R2 = 0.92 between TOC and BOD5 or COD respectively. The validation of the suggested formulas has been tested using data from the Pollutant Centre in Al Shatra Institute for Shat al Gharaf River. The formulas gave reasonably acceptable values. It could be used in monitoring water quality and wastewater plants as a surrogate parameter to have pre-impression of the plant efficiency.|
|BOD5؛ COD؛ Relationship؛ Tigris؛ TOC|
Abdouni, AEl, Bouhout, S, Merimi, I, Hammouti, B, Haboubi, K 2021, Physicochemical characterization of wastewater from the Al-Hoceima slaughterhouse in Morocco. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 423-429.
Aziz, JA & Tebbutt, TH 1980, Significance of COD, BOD and TOC correlations in kinetic models of biological oxidation. Water Research, 14: 319-324.
Bourgeois, W, Burgess, JE & Stuetz, RM 2001, Online monitoring of wastewater quality: A review. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology: International Research in Process, Environmental & Clean Technology, 76: 337-348.
Constable, TW & McBean, ER 1979, BOD/TOC correlations and their application to water quality evaluation. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 11: 363-375.
Christian, E, Batista, JR & Gerrity, D 2017, Use of COD, TOC, and fluorescence spectroscopy to estimate BOD in wastewater. Water Environment Research, 89: 168-177.
Dubber, D & Gray, NF 2010, Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, 45: 1595-1600.
Fallah, M, Pirali Zefrehei, AR, Hedayati, SA, Bagheri, T 2021, Comparison of temporal and spatial patterns of water quality parameters in Anzali Wetland (southwest of the Caspian Sea) using Support vector machine model, Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 95-104.
Hua, X, Song, X, Yuan, M & Donga, D 2011, The factors affecting relationship between COD and TOC of typical papermaking wastewater. In Advances in Computer Science, Intelligent System and Environment, pp. 239-244. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Jingsheng, C, Tao, Y & Ongley, E 2006, Influence of high levels of total suspended solids on measurement of COD and BOD in the Yellow River, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 116: 321-334.
Khatun, M, Rashidul Alam, AKM 2020, Phytoplankton assemblage with relation to water quality in Turag River of Bangladesh. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 18: 31-45.
Lee, J, Lee, S, Yu, S & Rhew, D 2016, Relationships between water quality parameters in rivers and lakes: BOD 5, COD, NBOPs, and TOC. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188: 252.
Leo, C & Van, R 1993, Principle of Sediment transport in River Estuaries and coastal Seas. The Netherlands, Aqua publication.
Maier, WJ & McConnell, HL 1974, Carbon measurements in water quality monitoring. Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation), 1: 623-633.
Nemerow, NL 2010, Industrial waste treatment. Contemporary practice and vision for the future. 1st Edition, Elsevier, ISBN: 9780123724939, 9780080471082.
Omidi, A, Shariati, F 2021, Evaluation of Pasikhan River, North of Iran Water Quality Using Water Quality Index (NSFWQI), Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19: 219-230
Ongley, ED 1996, Control of water pollution from agriculture. Food & Agriculture Organization, ISBN: 9251038759, 9789251038758.
Reynolds, DM 2002, The differentiation of biodegradable and non‐biodegradable dissolved organic matter in wastewaters using fluorescence spectroscopy. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology: International Research in Process, Environmental & Clean Technology, 77: 965-972.
Waziri, M & Ogugbuaja, VO 2010, Interrelationships between physicochemical water pollution indicators: A case study of River Yobe-Nigeria. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1: 76-80.
Zidani, O, Dakki, M, Fekhaoui, M, Errahmani, H, Fadil, F 2020, Availability and significance of data for the development of a geodatabase on the water physicochemical quality: the example of the Moroccan groundwaters. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 18: 319-327.
تعداد مشاهده مقاله: 1,072
تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله: 1,466