|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||7,633,657|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||5,854,478|
Lead and Cadmium Concentrations in Throughfall of Pinus eldarica
|Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences|
|مقاله 5، دوره 11، شماره 2، تیر 2013، صفحه 141-150 اصل مقاله (926.03 K)|
|al. et1؛ E. Khosropour* 2|
|1O. Rafieyan*1, A. A. Darvishsefat2, S. Babaii1, A. Mataji1|
|2, , A. Shirvany1, M. Matinizadeh2, O. Fathizadeh3|
|This research was carried out in order to quantify throughfall (TF) and interception loss (I) and to compare the chemical composition of TF, i.e. lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) as well as electrical conductivity (EC) and pH beneath Pinus eldarica and Cupressus arizonica plantations and the open field rainfall. The research was accomplished in the Chitgar Forest Park, a semi-arid polluted urban area, around Tehran, Iran. Gross rainfall (GR) was measured using ten collectors located in an open field. TF was quantified by randomly manual TF collectors placed beneath each plantation. Measurements were recorded on an event basis from 15 April 2010 to 15 February 2011. During the measurement, eighteen rainfall events with cumulative GR value of 114.8 mm were recorded. Interception loss was 35.3 mm by P. eldarica plantation and 30.4 mm by C. arizonica. There were strong correlations between I:GR and GR ((r2 Pinus = 0.686, r2 Cupressus = 0.766, p value ? 0.01). Pb and Cd concentrations as well as EC of TF were significantly different among P. eldarica and C. arizonica and the open field. The results demonstrated that interception represents a considerable portion of GR in P.eldarica and C. arizonica plantations and, therefore, it should be considered while choosing trees for plantations in semiarid climate zones of Iran. Our results showed that P.eldarica and C. arizonica plantations have good potentials for filtering the polluted air with Pb and Cd.|
|Throughfall؛ Cupressus arizonica؛ Pinus eldarica؛ lead؛ cadmium|
Avila, A. and Rodrigo, A. (2004) Trace metal fluxes in bulk deposition, throughfall and stemflow at two evergreen oak stands in NE Spain subject to different exposure to the industrial environment. Atmospheric Environment. 38: 171-180.
Aussenac, G. (1970) Action du couvert forestier sur la distribution au sol des précipitations. Annals of Forest Science. 27: 383-399.
Balestrini, R., Arisci, S., Brizzio, M.C., Mosello, R., Rogora, M. and Tagliaferri, A. (2007) Dry deposition of particles and canopy exchange: comparison of wet, bulk and throughfall deposition at five forest sites in Italy. Atmospheric Environment. 41: 745-756.
Carlyle-Moses, D.E. (2004) Throughfall, stemflow, and canopy interception loss fluxes in a semi-arid Sierra Madre Oriental matorral community. Journal of Arid Environments. 58: 181-202. Lead and Cadmium Concentrations in....148
Chiwa, M., Crossley, A., Shepard, L.J., Sakugawa, H., and Cape, J.N. (2004) Throughfall chemistry and canopy interactions in a Sitka spruce plantation sprayed with six different simulated polluted mist treatments. Environmental Pollution. 127: 57-64.
Crockford, R.H. and Richardson, D.P. (2000) Partitioning of rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and interception: effect of forest type, ground cover and climate. Hydrological Processes. 14: 2903-2920.
Deguchi, A., Hattori, S. and Park, H. (2006) The influence of seasonal changes in canopy structure on interception loss: application of the revised Gash model. Journal of Hydrology. 319: 80-102.
Fleischbein, K., Wilcke, W., Goller, R., Boy, J., Valarezo, C., Zech, W. and Knoblich, K. (2005) Rainfall interception in a lower montane forest in Ecuador: effects of canopy properties. Hydrological Processes. 19:1355-1371.
Forgeard, F., Gloaguen, J.C., and Touffet, J. (1980) Interception des précipitations et apports au sol d’éléments minéraux par les eaux de pluie et les pluviolessivats dans une hêtraie atlantique et dans quelques peuplements résineux de Bretagne. Annals of Forest Science. 37: 53-71.
Gandois, L., Tipping, E., Dumat, C. and Probst, A. (2010) Canopy influence on trace metal atmospheric inputs on forests ecosystems: speciation in throughfall. Atmospheric Environment. 44: 824-833.
Gash, J.H.C. and Morton, A.J. (1978) An application of the Rutter model to the estimation of the interception loss from Thetford forest. Journal of Hydrology. 38: 49-58.
Gash, J.H.C., Wright, I.R. and Lloyd, C.R. (1980) Comparative estimates of interception loss from three coniferous forests in Great Britain. Journal of Hydrology. 48: 89-105. Geiger, R. (1965) The Climate Near the Ground. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Gholami, V., Mohseni Saravi, M. and Ahmadi, H. (2010). Effects of impervious surfaces and urban development on runoff generation and flood hazard in the Hajighoshan watershed. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences. 8:1-12
Grunzweig, J.M., Lin, T., Rotenberg, E., Schwartz, A. and Yakir, D. (2003) Carbon sequestration in arid-land forest. Global Change Biology. 9: 791-799.
Helvey, J.D. and Patric, J.H. (1965) Design criteria for interception studies. In: Design of Hydrological Networks; Proceedings of a symposium; 1965 June, Quebec City Canada. International. Association of Scientific Hydrology. 67: 131-137.
Hou Bao, F., Wei, H., Zhuang, M. and Kosuke, W. (1999) Acidity and chemistry of bulk precipitation, throughfall and stemflow in Chinese fir plantation in Fujian, China. Forest Ecology and Management. 122: 243-248.
Hibbert, A.R. (1967) Forest treatment effects on water yield. In W. E. Sopper & H. W. Lull (Eds.). Proceedings International Symposium on Forest Hydrology Oxford: Pergamon Press. 527-544.
Huber, A. and Iroumé, A. (2001) Variability of annual rainfall partitioning for different sites and forest covered in Chile. Journal of Hydrology. 248: 78-92. Iroumé, A. and Huber, A. (2002) Comparison of interception losses in a broadleaved native forest and a Pseudotsuga menziesii(Douglas fir) plantation in the Andes Mountains of south Chile. Hydrological Processes. 16: 2347-2361.
Kellman, M. (1979) Soil enrichment by neotropical savanna trees. Journal of Ecology. 67: 565-577. Lankreijer, H.J.M., Hendriks, M.J. and Klaassen, W. (1993) A comparison of models simulating rainfall interception of forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 64: 187-199.
Lovett, G. and Lindberg, S. (1984) Dry deposition and canopy exchange in a mixed oak forest as determined by analysis of throughfall. Journal of Applied Ecology. 21: 1013-1027.
Miller, H.G., Cooper, J.M. and Miller, J.D (1976) Effect of nitrogen supply on nutrients in litter fall and crown leaching in a stand of Corsican pine. Journal of Applied Ecology. 13: 233-248.
Muzylo, A., Llorens, P., Valente, F. and Keizer, J.J. Domingo, F. and Gash J.H.C. (2009) Review of rainfall interception modeling. Journal of Hydrology. 370: 191–206. Nriagu, J.O. (1989) A global assessment of natural sources of atmospheric trace metals. Nature. 338: 47-49.
Pacyna, J. and Pacyna, E. (2001) An assessment of global and regional emissions of trace metals to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources worldwide. Environmental Reviews. 269-298. Khosropour et al., 149Parker, G.G. (1983) Throughfall and stemflow in the forest nutrient cycle. Advanced Ecological Research. 13: 58-121.
Pypker, T.G., Baond, B.J., Link, T.E., Marks, D. and Unsworth, M.H. (2005) The importance of canopy structure in controlling the interception loss of rainfall: examples from a young and an old-grown Douglas-fir forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 130: 113-129.
Rauch, J.N. and Pacyna, M. (2009) Earth's global Ag, Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn cycles. Global Geochemical Cycles. 23: 1-16.
Shotyk, W., Cheburkin, A.K., Appleby, P.G., Fankhauser, A. and Kramers, J.D. (1996) Two thousand years of atmospheric arsenic, antimony, and lead deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog profile, Jura Mountains, Switzerland. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 145:11-17.
Staelens, J., Schrijver, A.D., Verheyen, K. and Verhoest, N. (2008) Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow, and interception within a single beech (Fagus sylvestris L.) canopy: influence of foliation, rain event characteristics, and meteorology. Hydrological Processes. 22: 33-45.
Steinnes, E. and Friedland, A.J. (2005) Metal contamination of natural surface soils from long-range atmospheric transport: existing and missing knowledge. Environmental Reviews. 14: 169-186.
Stogsdill, W.R.J., Wittwer, R.F., Hennessey, T.C. and Dougherty, P.M. (1989) Relationship between throughfall and stand density in a Pinus taeda plantation. Forest Ecology and Management. 29: 105-113.
Viville, D. Biron, P. Granier, A. Dambrine, E. and Probst, A. (1993) Interception in a mountains declining spruce stand in Strengbach catchment (Vosges, France). Journal of Hydrology. 144: 273-282.
Xiao, Q., McPherson, E.G., Ustin, S.L., Grismer, M.E. and Simpson, J.R. (2000) Winter rainfall interception by two mature open-grown trees in Davis, California. Hydrological Processes. 14: 763-784.
Zinke, P.J. (1967) Forest interception study in the United States. In: Sopper, W.E., Lull, H.W. (Eds.). International Symposium on Forest Hydrology, Pergamon, Oxford. 137-161.
Zhou, GY., Wei, X.H. and Yan, J.H. (2002) Impacts of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus exserta) plantation on sediment yield in Guangdong Province, Southern China. A kinetic energy approach, Catena. 49: 231-251
تعداد مشاهده مقاله: 2,202
تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله: 1,532